DEFINITION: The Turabian format was created by Kate Turabian, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago specifically for student who did not require a strict scholarly style for their essays and papers. It is based on the Chicago Style of writing and is mainly for writing history papers, but it is sometimes used in other disciplines.
TITLE PAGE: for this particular style of writing, there is no specific format for a title page. It is therefore recommended to request guidelines from an instructor or professor to be certain the appropriate information is included.
DESIGN: The title of the paper appears centered on the first page of text in all capital letters. It should be in 12-point font and not italicized, underlined, bolded, or in quotation marks. Numbering of the pages has specific requirements: the page number is placed at the bottom center of the first page of text; after that the number appears in the upper right-hand corner. Every page is assigned a number even though page numbers do not appear on the title page or other display pages (i.e. tables or charts). However, the table of contents pages are assigned lowercase roman numerals.
Block quotations are quotations 3 lines or longer and include at least 2 sentences. They are single spaced and indented 4 spaces from the left. Short block quotations should end with a superscript number leading to an endnote or footnote. Paragraph-long block quotations do not use a superscript number and footnote or endnote; instead, they are followed by parenthetical citations (Author’s last name, year, of publication, page number) with the punctuation before the citation.
PAGE FORMAT: Use 12-point Times New Roman font on all pages of the paper. Double space the text, but single space the footnotes and endnotes. Leave a one-inch margin on all four sides of the document.
IN-TEXT CITATIONS: Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries are cited by using either footnotes or endnotes. In the text, the note numbers are superscript, follow the passage being referenced, and come immediately after the final punctuation mark. Corresponding footnotes are placed at the bottom of their page of reference. The text and footnotes are separated by a short line, and the reference begins with a full-sized number. The first line should be indented. Footnotes continue their numbering throughout the paper rather than by page.
Example of in-text citation-
Arthur said “She was the first of her kind; mobile, efficient and able to overcome the effects of gravity and, even death itself.”1
FOOTNOTES: Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries are cited by using either footnotes or endnotes. In the text, the note numbers are superscript, follow the passage being referenced, and come immediately after the final punctuation mark. Corresponding footnotes are placed at the bottom of their page of reference. The text and footnotes are separated by a short line, and the reference begins with a full-sized number. The first line should be indented. Footnotes continue their numbering throughout the paper rather than by page.
1 Jack Lamont, Kerrigan, Lurey and Foster: Friends for Life. (San Antonio: Billyboy Press, 2002) 102.
Endnote- If footnotes are required instead of footnotes, these are placed at the conclusion of the paper and serve the same purpose as footnotes. In-text citations still appear as superscript numerals, but the actual entries are found at the end of the paper, preceded by full-sized numbers with periods. As with footnotes, the first line is indented.
6. Wyatt Hallister, Gunfighters of Texas, (El Paso: Barrett Press, LLC, 2000) 176.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: In addition to endnotes and/or footnotes, Turabian essays require a bibliography. This comes after endnotes and should list all sources that were referenced or consulted even if they are not specifically noted in the paper. The title should be centered and in all capital letters but not underlined, italicized, or bolded. If longer than one line, use a hanging indent. (In MS Word, use the Paragraph option, Indent/Spacing, Special, Hanging for this functionality.) Indent 1/2’’ from the set margins after the first line of each entry.
Following are examples of the most common bibliography references. Although two systems of citing information can be used in Turabian essays (notes and bibliography where footnotes/endnotes are bibliography is at end of paper OR parenthetical method where in-text citations are used with a works cited list at end of paper), the notes and bibliography style is more prevalent and is also featured here.
First Name Last Name, Title (Location: Publisher, Year), pages.
Allan Gatherman, The First Time (Boston: Newman, Brown, 1998), 129.
First Name Last Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Year): page.
Ginny McCann, “Heaven and Greystone,” Reality, 42, 10 (2005): 34.
First Name Last Name, “Article Title,” Magazine Title, Day Month Year of Publication, pages.
Mary Swanson, “Little Tommy Henson,” Pretentious Reality, 12 May 2004, 23-29.
First Name Last Name, Title, Organization, or Web Site, type of electronic medium, access date.
Larry Thomas, Always Wary of Strangers, Monsters on the Loose, Internet, available from http://www.jerseymemories.org/strangers/htm