DEFINITION: This format is called ”Vancouver” because it originated at a meeting of medical journal editors in Vancouver (British Columbia) in 1978. It is primarily used in the medical, pharmaceutical and biomedical disciplines. It encompasses in-text citations using numbers in brackets to cite references.
References cited are in consecutive numerical order as they appear in the text. Proper citation includes noting the author and title of book or article as the first elements listed. Basically, a citation is given consisting of either a number in brackets or parentheses. These are subsequently identified in numerical order at the end of the essay in a reference list.
PHYSICAL SET-UP: Make sure you use 8½” x 11.0” paper with a 1.0” margin on all sides (top, bottom, left and right); double space all lines unless instructed differently.
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS: when preparing an essays in Vancouver format (or any other style), take appropriate notes in case you need to refer to them later; proper citations can alleviate any accusation of plagiarism; using citations to substantiate a position taken can show an understanding of the material; citations in the body of an essay must be fully acknowledged.
IN-TEXT CITATIONS: The Vancouver System assigns a number to each reference as it is cited. A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text.
One source (1) noted a majority of wrestlers were former college athletes.
A preponderance of participants, according to Harriet Blackthorn2 ran out the doors as the gunman approached the teller station.
REFERENCE LIST: Samples of the major sources that may be used in an essay written in Vancouver style in a reference list are covered. The first two will refer to the in-text citations noted above.
Citation number. Author, Title, Edition (but only if not first edition), Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
- Hogan, H. Wrestling Mania. Philadelphia: Franklin & Sons, 1993.
Citation number. Author, Title of article, Title of journal/magazine, Year of publication, Volume, Issue, page (p. for single; pp. for multiple pages).
- Blackthorn, H. Robbery at Cleveland Trust. Banking Industry. 2006, 3, 4, pp. 16-19.
Author, Title, [Online], Available from: (complete url address), [Date of Internet Access]
Witherspoon, L. Approaching Eternity. [Online]. Available from: http://www.heavenlyorb.org/solar/identity/htmll